Vinegar and Diabetes
"Vinegar appears to have effects similar to
some of the most popular medications for diabetes."
Vinegar and diabetes, what do they have to do with each other?
Quite a bit!
According to recent academic studies, vinegar slows the rise of blood sugar levels after you have eaten a meal and when taken at bed time, vinegar lowers morning blood sugar levels.
Professor Carol Johnston PhD, working on the subject of vinegar and diabetes with her research team from the department of nutrition at Arizona state university, have published results on the following four studies:
- Apple cider vinegar before meals.
- Apple cider vinegar before bedtime.
- Apple cider vinegar during meals for healthy adults.
- ACV for healthy adults with prediabetes.
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Apple Cider Vinegar Before Meals
Vinegar and Diabetes Study #1
The research team from Arizona state university, have recently shown that drinking apple cider vinegar slows the
rise of blood sugar after the consumption of a high-carbohydrate meal.
The results are reported in the scientific journal "Diabetes Care" in 2004. (See reference 1)
Test Procedure - Vinegar and Diabetes
In this study 29 people were given a breakfast of orange juice and a bagel, which
contained a total of 87 grams of carbohydrates.
Two minutes before the meal, half of the subjects were given 20 grams (about 4
teaspoons) of apple cider vinegar mixed with 40 grams water and 1 teaspoon saccharine.
The other half were given a placebo drink.
A cross over trial was conducted a week later, at which time the placebo group received
The participants' blood sugar levels were measured before and after the breakfast.
They were classified into 3 separate groups as follows:
Test Results - Vinegar and Diabetes
- 10 people with type 2 diabetes
- 11 people with prediabetes (insulin resistant)
- 8 healthy control people (insulin sensitive)
Analysis of the results showed that in all 3 groups
the consumption of apple cider vinegar
slowed the rise of blood sugar after the high-carbohydrate breakfast:
- For the group with prediabetes, their blood sugar levels after the meal dropped by 34%.
- For the group with type 2 diabetes, their blood sugar levels dropped by 19%.
Observations and Conclusions - Vinegar and Diabetes
Based on these results and two other recent studies, (see references 2 & 3), Dr Johnston
thinks that the vinegar tonic interferes with the absorption of high-carbohydrate foods
which reduces the blood sugar rise that normally occurs after a meal.
In her words," The acetic acid in vinegar may inhibit enzymes that digest starch so that carbohydrate
molecules aren't available for absorption and are eliminated as fecal matter."
" Vinegar appears to have effects similar to some of the most popular medications for
diabetes" (Acarbose or Metformin) continues professor Johnston and "Further
investigations to examine the efficacy of vinegar as an antidiabetic therapy are
This is especially important given that a 50%
increase in the number of Americans with type 2
diabetes is expected in the next 25 years.
In addition, the Diabetes Prevention Program and STOP-NIDDM, two recent large-scale
trials, have shown that therapeutic agents used to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes,
may also delay
the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with prebiabetes.
- (1.) Johnston C, Kim C, Buller A: Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-
carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or diabetes. Diabetes Care
27:281-282, 2004 (
- (2.) Ogawa N, Satsu H, Watanabe H, Fukaya M, Tsukamoto Y, Miyamoto Y,
Shimizu M: Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disacchatidase activity that
occurs during culture of Caco-2 cells. J Nutr 130:507-513, 2000
- (3.) Fushimi T, Tayama K, Fukaya M, Kitakoshi K, Nakai N, Tsukamoto Y, Sato Y:
Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of
rats. J Nutr 131:1973-1977, 2001 (
Apple Cider Vinegar Before Bedtime
Vinegar and Diabetes Study #2
In August 2007 a second trial was conducted at Arizona State University, this time to determine the effect apple cider vinegar would have on the fasting blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes.Test Procedure - Vinegar and Diabetes
11 people with type 2 diabetes, who were not taking insulin but were taking prescription oral antidiabetic medication, were given either 1 oz cheese and water (placebo group) or 1 oz cheese and 2 tablespoons of vinegar at bedtime for two days.
A cross over trial was conducted a few days later, at which time the placebo group received the vinegar and cheese, and the vinegar group received only cheese and water.
Fasting blood sugar levels were measured every morning.
Test Results - Vinegar and Diabetes
The researchers found the average
fasting blood glucose levels fell by 2% with the placebo (cheese only) and by 4% with the vinegar and cheese.
On closer examination of the data they found that those participants with the highest
fasting glucose levels benefited the most
from the evening vinegar drink - their fasting blood glucose levels fell by 6%.
Conclusions - Vinegar and Diabetes
These results show that apple cider vinegar, taken with cheese at bedtime, can significantly lower the waking glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetics.
And the authors of this study conclude that "Vinegar is widely available, it is affordable, and it is appealing as a remedy, but much more work is required to determine whether vinegar is a useful adjunct therapy for individuals with diabetes."
White A, Johnston C : Vinegar Ingestion at Bedtime Moderates Waking Glucose Concentrations in Adults With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes.
30:2814-2815, 2007 (
Apple Cider Vinegar During Meals
for Healthy Adults - Study #3
In January 2010 another study was published by the Arizona State University team, this time mainly to determine the effect apple cider vinegar would have on the blood sugar levels of healthy adults.Test Procedure - Study #3
In this study 4 randomized crossover trials were conducted with about 30 healthy adults and 9 adults with type 2 diabetes.
All participants ate a standardized meal the evening prior to testing, then after a 10 hour overnight fast were given a test meal consisting of a bagel, butter and fruit juice with or without 10 grams of vinegar. Two hours later, glucose testing was conducted.
Test Results, Observations and Conclusions - Study #3
Analysis of the results showed that for healthy adults, taking 2 teaspoons of vinegar ( 10 grams) with a meal composed of complex carbohydrates reduces blood sugar levels by 20% compared to placebo, as measured 2 hours after the meal.
10 grams of 5% acetic acid vinegar was found to be the most effective dose to lower blood glucose levels and taking the vinegar during the meal was more effective compared to 5 hours before the meal.
The researchers state that taking steps to reduce "after meal blood sugar levels" is recommended by the American Diabetes Association to limit complications of diabetes.
They also say that “…two teaspoons of vinegar could be consumed palatably in hot tea with lemon at mealtime.”
"Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults." Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 2010;56(1):74-9. PMID: 20068289, by Johnston CS, Steplewska I, Long CA, Harris LN, Ryals RH. (
Apple Cider Vinegar for Healthy Adults
at Risk for Developing Type 2 Diabetes
– Study #4
In this 12 week study published in April 2013, Carol S Johnston and her team at the Arizona State University evaluated the therapeutic effect of daily vinegar ingestion for healthy individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes.Test Procedure - Study #4
14 healthy adults participated in the study and 8 of them were diagnosed with pre-diabetes.
The 14 individuals were separated into two groups of seven.
The first group was given a commercially available vinegar drink containing 1 tablespoon of vinegar which works out to 750 mg of acetic acid. (8 oz. Bragg Apple cider vinegar drink with cinnamon, Santa Barbara, CA
) This was taken just before lunch and dinner meals each day.
The second group was given a commercial apple cider vinegar pill, containing 40 mg of acetic acid per tablet, daily before lunch and dinner meals.
Testing of blood glucose levels was done twice daily, upon waking in a fasted state and 2 hours after meals.
Test Results, Observations and Conclusions - Study #4
As was found in previous studies, vinegar ingestion significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations in healthy adults and in healthy adults diagnosed with prediabetes, both after meals and after waking up in the morning.
The reduction in blood glucose levels was not as big for the second group who took the vinegar pills containing the lower amount of acetic acid.
The researchers state that these results support a therapeutic effect for vinegar in people at risk for type 2 diabetes, including those diagnosed with prediabetes.
Johnston CS, Quagliano S, Loeb S. Therapeutic effect of daily vinegar ingestion for individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes. FASEB Journal 2013 27:1079.56 (
Testimonials on the subject of
Vinegar and Diabetes:
Tennessee, United States
June 26, 2017
My yearly blood work for five years had shown steady increases in blood sugar levels.
The last two years the readings were 109 and 115. This concerned me.
I started taking CinSulin (1 tablet) and also drinking about 2 T of Braggs apple cider vinegar in tart cherry juice (with water) every night.
I just got my blood work back and it was 77!!!!!!!!
I was bowled over. No change in diet or exercise this year. Just adding those items to my diet.
Mississippi, United States
February 20, 2017
Been using ACV for about 2 months, the results have been good.
I keep tweeking how often and when to take it. Best results so far are 2 tablespoons with 5 oz of SF true lemon 3 times a day.
Great results with sugar numbers. Dropped from 127 to as low as 83.
Sometimes due to very poor eating habits it will jump. Stay away from white bread! Take ACV just before meals.
Always Stay active and exercise sensibly, also, I do not take any prescription medicine and don't intend to.
I've been pre diabetic for about 8 years. My numbers just went over the line to 7.0 for the first time. That is when I read about ACV. That was the day my reading done at home was 127 and I had a blood test done at the Dr office. I know my next test will show much improved numbers.
At age 73 I try not top take anymore medicine by prescription.
While taking ACV I have also lost 10 Lbs, more energy, no more occasional blurry vision, and no kidding, also sleep better.
Hope ACV works so well for you also.
Western Cape, South Africa
October 04, 2016
I started taking 25 grams of cheese and 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar at night before bed.
Yesterday after fasting the reading was 9.3 and this morning the reading was 8.0.
I will keep with it and see what happens.
Arizona, United States
August 25, 2016
I take a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar or two, depending on how many carbs I have consumed.
I have seen a difference of 20-25% drop in my blood sugar levels.
Yet, I also take a tablespoon in the morning too. It's a natural way to lower your blood sugar levels. This has allowed the doc to lower my Metaformin!
April 27, 2016
I tried to drink Apple Cider Vinegar 2 times a day at least.
1 teaspoon + 8oz water in the morning before breakfast and 1 teaspoon + 8oz water at evening before dinner.
When I was back to test A1C after 4 months, the number from 7.6 went down to 7.3.
It is magical.
Hope it will help.
March 14, 2016
Love ACV, did wonders for me.
I'm type 2 and my sugars are great!
Texas, United States
February 29, 2016
Have been using the ACV for about 4 days now on a regular schedule during meals, and the results are amazing.
No more late night trips to the bathroom, have been sleeping better than I have in a long time.
I am considered pre diabetic but when I eat high carbo meals my blood sugar has gotten up into the 140s before but not since the ACV. Now I am looking at blood sugars as low as 80s after 2 hours so this is very good!
My blood pressure has also been coming down so I do intend to keep this up as long as I need it.
Louisiana, United States
February 08, 2016
Diagnosed type 2. Fasting glucose 287.
Put on 500 mg, Metformin 2x day. Morning glucose always 125 plus.
Started 2 table spoons distilled white vinegar at night with large glass of water and append a. Morning readings are now 97 to 98.
to read all the 2013 to 2015 diabetes testimonials.
to read all the 2011/2012 user diabetes testimonials.
to read all the 2009/2010 user diabetes testimonials.
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Vinegar and Diabetes